If you’re looking for AWS Solution Architect Interview Questions & Answers for Experienced or Freshers, you are in the right place. There are a lot of opportunities from many reputed companies in the world. According to AWS Developers’ review, the average salary of a certified AWS solution architect is about $126,871- the highest pay relatively. So, You still have the opportunity to move ahead in your career in AWS Architecture. We have collected all the Advanced AWS Solution Architect Interview Questions that help you in cracking your interview & acquiring a dream career as AWS Architect.
According to Forbes, AWS Certified Solutions Architect leads top among the 15 Top Paying IT Certifications. Without a doubt, AWS Solution Architect status is perhaps the most pursued among IT occupations.
“Good to Have AWS Solution Architect Certificate”
While going for AWS solution architect jobs, having an AWS solution architecture [SAA-C03] is a plus point. Please checkout our blogs below on preparation and cheatsheet for AWS solution architecture certifications.
What Do AWS Solution Architects Do?
AWS Solutions Architects are responsible for designing and managing applications on the Amazon Web Services (AWS) platform. They work with developers and system administrators to ensure that applications are built to scale and perform optimally on the AWS platform. Solutions Architects also work with customers to help them understand how to best use the AWS platform to meet their business needs. In addition to their technical expertise, Solutions Architects must also be able to effectively communicate with both technical and non-technical stakeholders.
AWS Solution Architect Interview Questions and Answers
We have compiled some of the most commonly asked AWS interview questions and answers for solution architect interviews. These are also AWS Solution Architect Interview Questions and are also asked at AWS Solution Architect Interview Questions for experienced candidates. Make sure you practice these questions to increase your chances of nailing your interview! Good Luck !!
AWS Solution Architect Interview Questions and Answers for Beginners:
Q1. What is Amazon EC2?
EC2 stands for Elastic Compute Cloud, and it is responsible for providing scalable computing capacity by eliminating the need for investing in hardware architecture. This way, applications are developed and deployed faster.
Amazon E2 can be used to launch multiple servers as well as configure security and networking and manage storage. You have the option of scaling it up or down, depending on the requirements. This way, there is a lesser need to forecast traffic. The virtual computing environments provided by EC2 are called instances.
Q2. What is Amazon S3?
S3 is short for Simple Storage Service, and Amazon S3 is the most supported storage platform available. S3 is object storage that can store and retrieve any amount of data from anywhere. Despite that versatility, it is practically unlimited as well as cost-effective because it is storage available on demand. In addition to these benefits, it offers unprecedented levels of durability and availability. Amazon S3 helps to manage data for cost optimization, access control, and compliance.
Q3. List some security best practices for Amazon EC2.
Some of the Amazon EC2 security best practices are:
- Use Identity and Access Management (IAM) to regulate access to AWS resources.
- Restrict access to resources by only allowing trusted hosts to access ports
- Open only those permissions that you require.
- For instances launched from the AMI, disable password-based logins.
Q4. What is Identity and Access Management?
Identity and Access Management (IAM) is a specialized web service to secure access to AWS resources. IAM is useful in managing users, access key credentials, and access permissions to AWS resources and applications.
Q5. What Is Amazon Virtual Private Cloud (VPC) and Why Is It Used?
A VPC is the best way of connecting to your cloud resources from your own data center. Once you connect your datacenter to the VPC in which your instances are present, each instance is assigned a private IP address that can be accessed from your data center. That way, you can access your public cloud resources as if they were on your own private network.
Q6. What Is Amazon Route 53?
Amazon Route 53 is a scalable and highly available Domain Name System (DNS). The name refers to TCP or UDP port 53, where DNS server requests are addressed.
Q7. What is CloudTrail?
CloudTrail is responsible for capturing requests sent to Amazon 53 API from an AWS account. It also captures requests from IAM users. The process of doing this is by saving log files to an Amazon S3 bucket.
Q8. Define AMI.
AMI is Amazon Machine Image, an image of the root filesystem.
Q9. Define AWS Lambda
AWS Lambda is an automated service which allows you to run code in the AWS Cloud without managing servers or provisioning.
Q10. What are tenancy models for AWS EC2?
- Shared Tenancy: This is the default tenancy model for AWS EC2, which is commonly used. On a physical host, the EC2 instance from different customers can be hosted. When we stop and start our instance, the underlying host gets changed. In case of a reboot, our underlying hardware does not change.
- Dedicated Tenancy: This tenancy model ensures that your AWS EC2 instances are running at specific hardware for your account. There are 2 different options available under a dedicated tenancy for AWS EC2 instances.
- Dedicated Host
- Dedicated Instances
Q11. Explain Different Storage For Amazon Ec2 Instance ?
Amazon EC2 provides many data storage options for your instances. Each option has a unique combination of performance and durability. These storages can be used independently or in combination to suit your requirements.
There are mainly four types of storages provided by AWS:
Amazon EBS: Its durable, block-level storage volumes can attached in running Amazon EC2 instance. The Amazon EBS volume persists independently from the running life of an Amazon EC2 instance. After an EBS volume is attached to an instance, you can use it like any other physical hard drive. Amazon EBS encryption feature supports encryption feature.
Amazon EC2 Instance Store: Storage disk that is attached to the host computer is referred to as instance store. The instance storage provides temporary block-level storage for Amazon EC2 instances. The data on an instance store volume persists only (sap training) during the life of the associated Amazon EC2 instance; if you stop or terminate an instance, any data on instance store volumes is lost.
Amazon S3: Amazon S3 provides access to reliable and inexpensive data storage infrastructure. It is designed to make web-scale computing easier by enabling you to store and retrieve any amount of data, at any time, from within Amazon EC2 or anywhere on the web.
Adding Storage: Every time you launch an instance from an AMI, a root storage device is created for that instance. The root storage device contains all the information necessary to boot the instance. You can specify storage volumes in addition to the root device volume when you create an AMI or launch an instance using block device mapping.
Q12. List types of EC2 instances available in AWS?
The types of EC2 instances available in AWS are listed below:
- General-Purpose instances.
- Compute Optimized instances.
- Memory Optimized instances.
- Accelerated Computing instances.
- Storage Optimized instances
Q13. Explain Stopping, Starting, And Terminating An Amazon Ec2 Instance ?
Stopping and Starting an instance: When an instance is stopped, the instance performs a normal shutdown and then transitions to a stopped state. All of its Amazon EBS volumes remain attached, and you can start the instance again at a later time. You are not charged for additional instance hours while the instance is in a stopped state.
Terminating an instance: When an instance is terminated, the instance performs a normal shutdown, then the attached Amazon EBS volumes are deleted unless the volume’s deleteOnTermination attribute is set to false. The instance itself is also deleted, and you can’t start the instance again at a later time.
Q14. What happens when an EC2 Instance is rebooted?
A reboot is like restarting a computer. The hard disk isn‘t affected. You don‘t get the image‘s original state back, but the hard disk’s contents revert to the original.
A reboot is like restarting a computer. The hard disk isn‘t affected. You don‘t get the image‘s original state back, but the hard disk’s contents revert to the original.
Q15. What is EC2 User Data?
The EC2 User Data Script runs with the root user to bootstrap our instances. bootstrapping means launching commands when a machine starts. That script is only run once at the instance first start.
Q16. What is EC2 Connect?
EC2 connect is used to connect to your EC2 instance with browser. Port 22 needs to be open to access EC2 instance via EC2 connect
Q17. What are EC2 purchasing options?
1)On-Demand Instances – short workload, predictable pricing, pay by second. It has the highest cost but no upfront payment.
2)Reserved (1 & 3 years): Up to 72% discount compared to On-demand. You reserve a specific instance attributes (Instance Type, Region, Tenancy, OS)
Reservation Period – 1 year (+discount) or 3 years (+++discount). Payment Options – No Upfront (+), Partial Upfront (++), All Upfront (+++).
Reserved Instance’s Scope – Regional or Zonal. You can buy and sell in the Reserved Instance Marketplace
- Reserved Instances – long workloads
- Convertible Reserved Instances – long workloads with flexible instances.
3)Savings Plans (1 & 3 years) –commitment to an amount of usage, long workload. Commit to a certain type of usage ($10/hour for 1 or 3 years). Usage beyond EC2 Savings Plans is billed at the On-Demand price.
Locked to a specific instance family & AWS region. Flexible across: Instance Size (e.g., m5.xlarge, m5.2xlarge), OS (e.g., Linux, Windows), Tenancy (Host, Dedicated, Default)
4)Spot Instances – short workloads, cheap, can lose instances (less reliable). Upto 90% discount. The MOST cost-efficient instances in AWS. Not suitable for critical jobs or databases,
5)Dedicated Hosts – book an entire physical server, control instance placement
6)Dedicated Instances – no other customers will share your hardware. The most expensive option, allows you address compliance requirements and use your existing server bound software licenses. Useful for software that have complicated licensing model or for companies that have strong regulatory or compliance needs.
Purchasing Options: On-demand – pay per second for active Dedicated Host and Reserved – 1 or 3 years (No Upfront, Partial Upfront, All Upfront)
7)Capacity Reservations – reserve capacity in a specific AZ for any duration. Combine with Regional Reserved Instances and Savings Plans to benefit from billing discounts.
You’re charged at On-Demand rate whether you run instances or not. Suitable for short-term, uninterrupted workloads that needs to be in a specific AZ.
Q18. What is EBS – Delete on Termination attribute?
EBS – Delete on Termination attribute: If enabled, default EBS volume is lost and any other attached EBS volume is not deleted.
Q19. What is EC2 Instance Store?
EC2 Instance Store: If you need a high-performance hardware disk, use EC2 Instance Store. EC2 Instance Store has Better I/O performance and lose their storage if they’re stopped (ephemeral). Good for buffer / cache / scratch data / temporary content.
Q20. What is Elastic File System (EFS)?
Elastic File System (EFS): Managed NFS (network file system) that can be mounted on 100s of EC2. EFS works with Linux EC2 instances in multi-AZ.
EFS is highly available, scalable, expensive (3x gp2), pay per use, no capacity planning.
Q21. What are the advantages of auto-scaling?
AWS auto-scaling automatically monitors an application’s performance and adjusts the resources it has allocated to the application. The ability to monitor applications and set up automatic adjustments for capacity can offer a predictable way to measure performance. For example, if the number of orders in an online shop peak during a holiday, AWS can increase the number of instances to support the load from the high orders. Since the auto-scaler assigns resources based on an application’s demand, it can result in lower costs, as the scaler switches off expensive resources when their service is unnecessary.
Q22. What is AWS SQS?
Amazon Simple Queue Service (SQS) is a fast, reliable, scalable, fully managed message queuing service. AWS Simple Notification Service (SNS) is a quick, flexible, fully managed push notification service that lets you send individual messages or fan-out messages to large numbers of recipients.
Amazon Simple Email Service (SES) is a cost-effective, flexible, and scalable email service that enables developers to send mail from within any application. Elastic Beanstalk is an easy-to-use service for deploying and scaling web applications and services developed with Java, .NET, PHP, Node.js, Python, Ruby, Go, and Docker on familiar servers such as Apache, Nginx, Passenger, and IIS.
Q23. What is AWS OpsWorks?
AWS OpsWorks is a cloud orchestration technology. It enables developers and system administrators to manage server deployments and applications using the DevOps methodology. OpsWorks automates operational tasks such as software updates, instance scaling, and monitoring. It also provides a flexible architecture that enables you to use Chef and Puppet for configuration management.
Q24. What is AWS SNS?
Amazon Simple Notification Service (SNS) is a fast, fully managed push notification service that makes sending messages to mobile devices and other distributed systems easy.
Q25. What is CloudFront?
Ans. Amazon CloudFront has become one of the world’s most popular delivery networks (content delivery network, CDN) thanks to its ability to accelerate the transmission of static and dynamic web content, like .html, .css, and .js files.
Q26. What are the different types of load balancers in EC2?
There are three types of load balancers in EC2 –
- Application Load Balancer – These balancers are designed to make routing decisions at the application layer.
- Network Load Balancer: Network load balancer handles millions of requests per second and helps make routing decisions at the transport layer.
- Classic Load Balancer: Classic Load Balancer is mainly used for applications built within the EC2-Classic network. It offers essential load balancing at varying Amazon EC2 instances.
Q27. What is DynamoDB?
DynamoDB is a NoSQL database. It is very flexible, performs quite reliably, and can be integrated with AWS! It offers fast and predictable performance with seamless scalability. With the help of DynamoDB, you do not need to worry about hardware provisioning, setup, configuration, replication, software patching, or cluster scaling.
Q28. What is AWS CloudFormation?
AWS CloudFormation is an Amazon service dedicated to solving the need to standardize and replicate the architectures to facilitate their execution and optimize resources and costs in the delivery of applications or compliance with the requirements of the organization. CloudFormation allows the creation of a proprietary library of instance templates or architectures capable of being delivered at any time and in an organized manner through programming.
Q29. What is Elastic Beanstalk?
Flexible Beanstalk is an arrangement administration by AWS, utilized in different AWS applications, for example, EC2, S3, and Straightforward Warning Help.
Q30. What is a Serverless application in AWS?
The AWS Serverless Application Model (AWS SAM) extends AWS CloudFormation to provide a simplified way of defining the Amazon API Gateway APIs, AWS Lambda functions, and Amazon DynamoDB tables needed by your serverless application.
Q31. What is the use of Amazon ElastiCache?
Amazon ElastiCache is a web service that makes it easy to deploy, operate, and scale an in-memory data store or cache in the cloud.
Q32. What is Redshift?
Redshift is a petabyte-size data warehouse service by Amazon. It is easy, cost-effective, and scalable and can be fully configured to analyze your data using the existing business intelligence tools.
Q33. Which AWS services will you use to collect and process e-commerce data for near real-time analysis?
Following are the AWS administrations that will be utilized to gather and handle web-based business information for close to ongoing investigation:
- Amazon DynamoDB
- Amazon ElastiCache
Q34. What are features of IAM?
The features of IAM are as follows:
- Shared Access to our Account helps in sharing resources with the help of the shared access features.
- Free of cost – AWS IAM is free to use, and also all the charges are added when we access other Amazon web services using IAM users.
- Centralized control over your Aws account – Helps in the new creation of users and groups of any form of cancellation.
- Grant permission to the user – It holds administrative rights, and the users can grant permission to access.
- Multifactor Authentication – It adds layers of security implemented on our account by a third party.
Q35. What are the types of IAM policies?
AWS policies are of two types:
- Identity-based policies: This is the policy that binds with AWS identities, such as a user’s, group or role. IAM policies are an example of that. These policies can be either Amazon Web Services managed or customer-managed.
- Resource-based policies: AWS resource-based policies are the ones that can be tied directly to Amazon Resources, like a bucket policy (S3). Resource-based policies are only available for certain services.
Q36. What Is Shared Ami ?
A shared AMI is an AMI that a developer created and made available for other developers to use.
Q37. What is Spot Fleet?
Spot fleet: set of spot instances + (optional) on demand instances. Allows us to automatically request spot instances with lowest price
Q38. What are EC2 Placement Groups and types?
Placement Groups in AWS determines how instances are placed on underlying hardware
AWS now provides three types of placement groups
Cluster – clusters instances into a low-latency group in a single AZ
Partition– spreads instances across logical partitions, ensuring that instances in one partition do not share underlying hardware with instances in other partitions
Spread– spreads instances across underlying hardware
Q39. What is Elastic Network Interface (ENI)?
Elastic Network Interface (ENI) is a logical component in VPC that represent virtual network card. ENI are bound to specific AZ. ENI consists of primary private IP, one or more secondary IP, one public IPV4, one elastic IP per IPV4, one or more security groups and a mac address.
Q40. What is EC2 Hibernate?
With EC2 hibernate -The in-memory RAM is preserved. – The instance boot is faster. – Under the hood the RAM state is written in EBS. – The root volume must be enough. An instance can not be hibernated for more than 60 days.
AWS Solution Architect Interview Questions and Answers for Experienced:
Q41. If you would like to check the incoming traffic for your AWS VPC, which logs would you be looking for?
VPC Flow Logs: The inbound and outbound traffic from the network interfaces in your VPC is recorded in flow logs.
Q42. What is the difference between authorization and authentication ?
- Authentication: It is how you sign into AWS using your credentials. As a principal, you must be authenticated (signed into AWS) using an entity (root user, IAM user, or IAM role) to send a request to AWS. An IAM user can have long-term credentials such as a username and password or a set of access keys.
- Authorization: It is the security process that determines a user or service’s level of access. In technology, we use authorization to give users or services permission to access some data or perform a particular action.
Q43. What is the key difference between EBS vs S3 vs EFS?
- S3 is object storage, and latency is higher than EBS and EFS; we can host/install OS or application on it
- EBS is block storage, and it is the default storage with an Ec2 instance. We can attach 1 EBS with 1 instance.
- EFS is Elastic File Storage. It is shared storage provided by AWS. We can attach 1 EFS with multiple Ec2 instances.
Q44. What is AWS RDS and what are all databases supported by AWS RDS?
Amazon is Amazon DAAS (Database as a Service) supports various databases like
- MSSql(Mysql Server)
- Aurora(serverless and provisioned)
- Maria DB
Q46. What is Amazon Aurora serverless? How is it different from Amazon managed Aurora?
It is similar to Aurora Database(MySQL and Postgres compatible). It’s an on-demand database. In this database, we don’t have to manage/control database instances, and we need not pay the higher compute cost. It assigns compute power as required. In serverless compute capacity denote as ACU(Aurora Capacity unite) we can use mn 1 ACU(2BG RAM) to 256ACU(488GB RAM).
Q47. What is the difference between NAT gateway and Internet gateway?
Internet gateways allow AWS resources/instances to connect to public internet on a public subnet, and it provides inbound and outbound traffic on AWS resources. Nat Gateway provides a connection under a private gateway; only inbound traffic is allowed on the NAT gateway.
Q48. What is Network ACL and security group, and what is the difference between them?
Network ACL: NACL stands for Network Access Control Lists. It is a security layer that works on VPC. It controls inbound and outbound internet on one or more subnets.
Security Group: It acts as a virtual firewall. It controls inbound and outbound traffic in instances
Difference: Network ACL works on the subnet level, and Security Group works on the Instance/machine level.
Q49. How terminating and stopping an instance are different processes?
Instance performs a regular shut down when it is stopped. It then performs transactions. As the entire EBS volumes remain present, it is possible to start the instance anytime again when you want. The best thing is when the instance remains in the stopped state, users don’t need to pay for that particular time.
Upon termination, the instance performs a regular shutdown. After this, the Amazon EBS volumes start deleting. You can stop them from deleting simply by setting the “Delete on Termination” to false. Because the instance gets deleted, it is not possible to run it again in the future.
Q50. It is possible to use S3 with EC2 instances. How?
Yes, it’s possible if the instances are having root devices and are supported by the instance storage. Amazon uses one of the very reliable, scalable, fast, as well as inexpensive networks for hosting all their websites. With the help of S3, it is possible for the developers to get access to the same network. There are tools available in AMI’s that users can consider when it comes to executing systems in EC2. The files can simply be moved between EC2 and S3.
Q51. Is it possible to speed up data transfer in Snowball? How?
Yes, it’s possible. There are certain methods for this. First is simply copying from different hosts to the same Snowball. Another method is by creating a group of smaller files. This is helpful as it cut down the encryption issues. Data transfer can also be enhanced by simply copying operations again and again at the same time provided the workstation is capable to bear the load.
Q52. Name the method that you will use for moving the data to a very long distance?
Amazon Transfer Acceleration is a good option. There are other options such as Snowball but the same doesn’t support data transfer over a very long distance such as among continents. Amazon Transfer Acceleration is the best option because it simply throttles the data with the help of network channels that are optimized and assure very fast data transfer speed.
Q53. Is it possible to establish a connection between the Amazon cloud and a corporate data center? How?
Yes, it’s possible. For this, first, a Virtual Private Network is to be established between the Virtual private cloud and the organization’s network. After this, the connection can simply be created and data can be accessed reliably.
Q54. Why is it not possible to change or modify the private IP address of an EC2 instance when it is running?
This is because the private IP remains with the instance permanently or through the life cycle. Thus it cannot be changed or modified. However, it is possible to change the secondary private address.
Q55. What happens if AWS Direct Connect fails to perform its function?
It is recommended to backup the Direct Connect as in case of a power failure you can lose everything. Enabling BFD i.e. Bi-directional Forwarding Detection can avoid the issues. In case no backup is there, VPC traffic would be dropped and you need to start everything from the initial point again.
Q56. What will happen if the content is absent in CloudFront and a request is made?
CloudFront sent the content from the primary server directly to the cache memory of the edge location. As it’s a content delivery system, it tries to cut down the latency and that is why it will happen. If the operation is performed for the second time, the data would directly be served from the cache location.
Q57. Compare RDS, Redshift, and DynamoDB?
RDS is basically a DBM service that is considered for relational databases. It is useful for upgrading and patching data automatically. However, it works for structured data only.
On the other side, Redshift is used in Data analysis. It is basically a data warehouse service.
When it comes to DynamoDB, it is considered when there is a need to deal with unstructured data.
RDS is quick as compared to both Redshift and DynamoDB. All of them are powerful enough to perform their tasks without errors.
Q58. What is the significance of Connection Draining?
There are certain stages when the traffic needs to be re-verified for bugs unwanted files that raise security concerns. Connection draining helps in re-routing the traffic that comes from the Instances and which is in a queue to be updated.
Q59. If you hold half of the workload on the public cloud whereas the other half is on local storage, what type of architecture is used in such a case?
The hybrid cloud architecture is used in such a case.
Q60. How do you handle data archiving in AWS?
One way to handle data archiving in AWS is to use Amazon S3 Glacier, which is a secure, durable, and extremely low-cost Amazon S3 storage class for data archiving and long-term backup. With S3 Glacier, you can store data at a cost that is as little as 1/10th of one cent per gigabyte per month.
Q61. What is the purpose of Amazon CloudFront?
Amazon CloudFront is a content delivery network (CDN) that securely delivers data, videos, applications, and APIs to customers globally. It integrates with other Amazon Web Services products to give developers and businesses an easy way to distribute content to end users with low latency, high data transfer speeds, and no minimum usage commitments.
Q62. How do you secure an Amazon S3 bucket?
- To secure an Amazon S3 bucket, you can use a combination of the following measures:
- Access control
- Access logging
Q63. Can you explain the difference between Amazon EC2 and Amazon Elastic Beanstalk?
Amazon EC2 is a web service that provides resizable compute capacity in the cloud, while Amazon Elastic Beanstalk is an easy-to-use service for deploying, running, and scaling web applications and services developed with Java, .NET, PHP, Node.js, Python, Ruby, and Docker.
Q64. Can you explain the purpose of Amazon Elastic Container Service (ECS)?
Amazon Elastic Container Service (ECS) is a fully managed container orchestration service that makes it easy to run, scale, and secure containerized applications on AWS. It allows you to easily run and scale containerized applications using Docker and Amazon Elastic Container Registry (ECR) images.
Q65. How do you automate the scaling of Amazon EC2 instances?
To automate the scaling of Amazon EC2 instances, you can use Amazon Auto Scaling. This service allows you to automatically increase or decrease the number of instances in your Auto Scaling group based on predefined policies and metrics.
Q66. Can you explain the purpose of the Amazon Elastic File System (EFS)?
Amazon Elastic File System (EFS) is a fully managed, scalable, and elastic file storage service for use with Amazon EC2 instances. EFS is designed to provide a simple and highly available file storage service, with a high degree of scalability and performance.
Q67. How do you monitor resources and applications in AWS?
To monitor resources and applications in AWS, you can use a combination of services such as Amazon CloudWatch, AWS CloudTrail, and Amazon CloudWatch Logs. These services allow you to collect and monitor various metrics and logs related to your resources and applications.
Q68. How do you handle security in AWS?
To handle security in AWS, you can use a combination of services such as Amazon Identity and Access Management (IAM), Amazon Virtual Private Cloud (VPC), and AWS Key Management Service (KMS).
Q69. How do you handle data migration in AWS?
To handle data migration in AWS, you can use a combination of services such as AWS DataSync, AWS Database Migration Service (DMS), and AWS Snowball. These services allow you to easily transfer data between on-premises and cloud environments, and to migrate data between different databases and storage services. Additionally, you can use services such as AWS Direct Connect and Amazon S3 Transfer Acceleration to optimize the transfer of large amounts of data.
Q70. Can you explain the purpose of Amazon Elasticsearch Service?
Amazon Elasticsearch Service is a fully managed service that makes it easy to deploy, operate, and scale Elasticsearch clusters in the AWS cloud. It allows you to index, search, and analyze large volumes of data quickly and in near real time.
Q71. How do you handle network traffic in AWS?
To handle network traffic in AWS, you can use a combination of services such as Amazon Virtual Private Cloud (VPC), Amazon Elastic Load Balancing (ELB), and Amazon Route 53. These services allow you to securely and efficiently route and manage network traffic within your AWS environment.
Q72. How do you handle cost optimization in AWS?
To handle cost optimization in AWS, you can use a combination of services such as AWS Cost Explorer, AWS Trusted Advisor, and AWS Budgets. These services allow you to monitor and control your costs, identify opportunities for cost savings, and set budgets for your resources.
Q73. Can you explain the purpose of Amazon Kinesis?
Amazon Kinesis is a fully managed service that makes it easy to collect, process, and analyze real-time streaming data. It allows you to easily ingest and process data streams, such as log files, sensor data, and social media feeds, and then analyze and visualize the data using services such as Amazon Redshift, Amazon Elasticsearch Service, and Amazon QuickSight.
Q74. How do you handle multi-region deployments in AWS?
To handle multi-region deployments in AWS, you can use a combination of services such as Amazon Route 53, Amazon CloudFront, and Amazon Elastic Block Store (EBS). These services allow you to route traffic to the optimal region, distribute content globally, and replicate data across multiple regions for high availability and disaster recovery.
Q75. How do you handle integration with on-premises infrastructure in AWS?
To handle integration with on-premises infrastructure in AWS, you can use a combination of services such as AWS Direct Connect, AWS VPN, and AWS Storage Gateway. These services allow you to create dedicated connections between your on-premises infrastructure and your AWS environment, and to easily transfer data and resources between the two environments.
Q76. Can you explain the purpose of Amazon AppStream?
Amazon AppStream is a fully managed service that allows you to stream desktop applications from the cloud to any device. It allows you to easily run your existing applications on a variety of devices, such as laptops, tablets, and smartphones, without the need to re-architect your applications or make changes to the underlying infrastructure.
Q77. Can you explain the purpose of Amazon WorkSpaces?
Amazon WorkSpaces is a fully managed, secure desktop computing service that runs on the AWS cloud. It allows you to easily provision cloud-based virtual desktops to your users and provides them with access to their applications and data from any device.
Q78. How do you handle data encryption in AWS?
To handle data encryption in AWS, you can use a combination of services such as AWS Key Management Service (KMS), Amazon Elastic Block Store (EBS) encryption, and Amazon S3 encryption. These services allow you to encrypt your data at rest and in transit, and to manage and control access to your encryption keys.
Q79. What does AWS Solution Architect do?
AWS Solution Architect designs and implements cloud solutions over the cloud that are beneficial for the complete cloud performance.
Q80. Explain the differences between Scalability and Elasticity.
Scalability is the capacity of a framework to build its hardware assets to deal with the expansion when there is demand. It very well may be finished by expanding the equipment specifications or expanding the processing hubs. Elasticity is the capacity of a framework to deal with increment in the workload at hand by adding extra hardware resources when the demand increases yet in addition moving back the scaled resources, when the assets are not, at this point required. This is especially useful in Cloud conditions, where a compensation for each model is followed.
Q81. Explain the lifecycle hooks used in AutoScaling.
Lifecycle hooks can be included in the autoscaling group. It empowers you to execute custom activities by stopping instances where the autoscaling bunch ends and dispatches them. Each auto-scaling group comprises numerous lifecycle hooks.
Q82. Describe the use of subnets.
On the off chance that there is a network that has a huge number of hosts, dealing with every one of these hosts could be dull work. Hence we divided this network into subnets (sub-networks) so that dealing with these hosts gets less complex.
Q83. How does Elastic Beanstalk apply updates?
Elastic Beanstalk readies a duplicate copy of the instance, prior to refreshing the first instance, and courses your traffic to the copy instance, so that, incase your refreshed application fails, then it will switch back to the first instance, thus there won’t be down time experienced by the clients who are utilizing your application.
Q84. How will I load my data to Amazon Redshift from various data sources like Amazon DynamoDB, Amazon RDS, and Amazon EC2?
You can stack the information in the given two different ways:
- You can utilize the COPY command to load information in parallel straightforwardly to Amazon Redshift from Amazon DynamoDB, Amazon EMR, or any SSH-empowered host.
- AWS Data Pipeline gives an elite, dependable, flaw tolerant solution for load information from an assortment of AWS information sources. You can utilize AWS Data Pipeline to indicate the information source, wanted information changes, and execute a pre-composed import script to stack your information into Amazon Redshift.
Q85. At what time will you incur costs with an Elastic IP address (EIP)?
If just a single Elastic IP address is connected with your running case, you are not charged. However, you do get charged in the given ways:
- At the point where you utilize more than one Elastic IPs using your instance.
- At the point where your Elastic IP is joined to a halted instance.
- At the point where your Elastic IP isn’t connected to any instance.
Q86. When there is a requirement to move data over long distances utilising the internet, for instance across countries or continents to your Amazon S3 bucket, which method is used?
The snowball administration doesn’t uphold cross region information transfer, and since, we are moving across nations, Snowball can’t be utilized. Transfer Acceleration will be the correct option here as it chokes your information transfer with the utilization of enhanced network ways and Amazon’s content conveyance network upto 300% contrasted with typical information transfer speed.
Q87. Name some of the non-regional or global AWS services.
Some of the non-regional AWS services.
- Route 53
- Web Application Firewall
Q88. What are the various layers of cloud computing? Explain their work.
Cloud computing categories have various layers that include
- Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) is the on-demand provision of services such as servers, storage, networks, and operating systems.
- Platform as a Service (PaaS) combines IaaS with an abstracted collection of middleware services, software development, and deployment tools. PaaS also enables developers to create web or mobile apps in the cloud quickly.
- Software as a Service (SaaS) is a software application that has been delivered on-demand, in a multi-tenant model
- Function as a Service (FaaS) enables end users to build and execute app functionalities on a serverless architecture.
Q89. List the pros and cons of serverless computing.
- Operations have been simplified.
- Improves Productivity
- This can result in response latency
- Due to resource constraints, it is not suitable for high-computing operations.
- Not very safe.
- Debugging can be difficult.
Q90. How does one set up CloudWatch to recover an EC2 instance?
Here’s how you can set them up:
- Using Amazon CloudWatch, create an alarm.
- Navigate to the Define Alarm -> Actions tab of the Alarm.
- Choose the Option to Recover This Instance
Q91. How do you recover/log in to an EC2 instance for which you have lost the key?
If you have lost your key, follow the procedures below to recover an EC2 instance:
Step 1. Verify that the EC2Config service is operating.
Step 2. Detach the instance’s root volume.
Step 3. Connect the volume to a temporary instance
Q92. How do you auto-delete old snapshots?
Here’s how to delete outdated photos automatically:
- Take snapshots of the EBS volumes on Amazon S3 in accordance with process and best practices.
- To manage all of the snapshots automatically, use AWS Ops Automator.
- You may use this to generate, copy, and remove Amazon EBS snapshots.
Q93. Which scaling method would you recommend for RDS, and why?
Vertical scaling and horizontal scaling are the two forms of scaling. Vertical scaling allows you to scale up your master database vertically with the click of a button. A database can only be scaled vertically, and the RDS may be resized in 18 different ways. Horizontal scaling, on the other hand, is beneficial for copies. These are read-only replicas that can only be performed with Amazon Aurora.
Q94. Can I retrieve only a specific element of the data, if I have a nested JSON data in DynamoDB?
Yes. When using the GetItem, BatchGetItem, Query or Scan APIs, you can define a Projection Expression to determine which attributes should be retrieved from the table. Those attributes can include scalars, sets, or elements of a JSON document.
Q95. What is an Amazon RDS maintenance window? Will your database instance be available during maintenance?
You may plan DB instance updates, database engine version upgrades, and software patching using the RDS maintenance window. Only upgrades for security and durability are scheduled automatically. The maintenance window is set to 30 minutes by default, and the DB instance will remain active throughout these events, but with somewhat reduced performance.
Q96. When an instance is unhealthy, it is terminated and replaced with a new one,what it is called?
Fault Tolerance: When ELB detects that an instance is unhealthy, it starts routing incoming traffic to other healthy instances in the region. If all the instances in a region becomes unhealthy, and if you have instances in some other availability zone/region, your traffic is directed to them. Once your instances become healthy again, they are re routed back to the original instances.
Q97. How does AWS configuration interact with AWS CloudTrail?
AWS CloudTrail logs user API activity on your account and provides you with access to the data. CloudTrail provides detailed information on API activities such as the caller’s identity, the time of the call, request arguments, and response elements. AWS Config, on the other hand, saves point-in-time configuration parameters for your AWS resources as Configuration Items (CIs).
Q98. How is AWS OpsWorks different than AWS CloudFormation?
OpsWorks and CloudFormation both support application modelling, deployment, configuration, management and related activities. Both support a wide variety of architectural patterns, from simple web applications to highly complex applications. AWS OpsWorks and AWS CloudFormation differ in abstraction level and areas of focus.
AWS CloudFormation is a building block service which enables customer to manage almost any AWS resource via JSON-based domain specific language. It provides foundational capabilities for the full breadth of AWS, without prescribing a particular model for development and operations. Customers define templates and use them to provision and manage AWS resources, operating systems and application code.
Q99. What happens if my application in Beanstalk stops responding to requests?
AWS Beanstalk apps provide a built-in method for preventing infrastructure problems. If an Amazon EC2 instance dies for whatever reason, Beanstalk will instantly start a new instance using Auto Scaling. Beanstalk can detect if your application is not responding to the custom link.
Q100. What is Cloudtrail, and how does it interact with Route 53?
CloudTrail is a service that logs every request made to the Amazon Route 53 API by an AWS account, including those made by IAM users. The CloudTrail stores these requests’ log files to an Amazon S3 bucket. CloudTrail collects data on all requests. CloudTrail log files contain information that may be used to discover which requests were submitted to Amazon Route 53, the IP address from which the request was sent, who issued the request, when it was sent, and more.
AWS is the leading cloud brand and provides a lot of job opportunities in the AWS cloud. AWS Solution Architect is one of the most demanding job roles in the cloud. Candidates need to prepare themselves for the interview well.
In this blog, we covered some most asked topics in the AWS Solution Architect Interview Questions. These questions will surely help you to prepare better for your AWS SA Interview.